Kenya has made a remarkable move of deploying its first ever satellite tracking system. Thanks to a new satellite tracking system based in Kenya, eastern and southern African states have joined the growing ranks of countries tracking extreme weather and climate change impacts from space.
The Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) in Nairobi launched a satellite tracking system in mid-July that can collect real-time data from 75 percent of Africa’s land area.
Capable of capturing images with a 250-metre resolution, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) monitors factors affecting the environment, like forest fires, in areas where human surveillance cannot reach without the aid of aerial photography.
“It enables the acquisition of direct data which can be processed into different products for a variety of applications, such as flood mapping, crop monitoring, fire assessment, water quality assessment and hailstorm prediction, among others,” said the RCMRD’s director for remote sensing, Tesfaye Korme.
The satellite receiving station in Nairobi collects data from several earth observation satellites, which it shares with the RCMRD’s 15 member states in eastern and southern Africa, Korme said.
Funded by the Google Foundation at a cost of $250,000, the MODIS antennae gathers information on Africa from the Atlantic coast to the Indian Ocean and from the north to the south of the continent, officials said.
DATA FOR INSURANCE
That means it can tap data from Gachari Wanja’s village in central Kenya.
The farmer from Nanyuki has tried a couple of options, including conservation agriculture techniques, to boost production from her land in Laikipia County. But none has yet shown promise, laments the mother of four.
“I have even signed up with a crop insurance scheme as a way of ensuring I do not suffer so much loss when the rains fail,” said the 36-year-old. “Sometimes I am compensated for the loss, but at other times I do not get a payout.”
It is not her fault when she doesn’t get anything, as payouts are made to farmers depending on data collected from the nearest remote weather station.
Powered by solar energy, the automatic weather stations are fitted with a General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), which enables them to record rainfall data from farms within a radius of 20 km every 15 minutes, according to officials at the Center for Training and Research in Arid and Semi Arid Lands Development (CETRAD).
For instance, if rain falls at Wanja’s farm but doesn’t reach her neighbour’s land some 5 km away, it means the neighbour wins compensation but Wanja doesn’t.
“Insurance companies ask for evidence of what is being claimed,” said Robinson Mugo, who heads up an ecological monitoring and disaster-response project called SERVIR-Africa at the RCMRD. But sometimes remote weather stations fail to give accurate data, he added.
This, according to Mugo, is where MODIS – which supports the SERVIR project, among other things – comes in.
It can show insurance companies, governments and farmers how much rain is received over a given period of time much more accurately than the weather stations, he said.
The SERVIR platform, set up in 2008, integrates satellite observation and predictive models with other geographic information to track and forecast ecological changes, and respond to natural disasters.
INVESTING IN PEOPLE TOO
Mugo, who recalls his childhood growing up on a farm, is troubled by the rapid change in climate patterns. Installations like automatic weather stations, he says, cannot meet the demand for factual information to shore up expanding initiatives like crop insurance.
“Climate change not only affects countries but has gone beyond geographical and political boundaries,” Mugo said. The cross-border data captured by MODIS can be shared to inform policies that help ordinary people cope with the impacts of a warming world, he added.
The technology is also useful for scientific activities such as measuring ocean temperatures and soil sediment running off into water bodies, and predicting hazards like tsunamis, he added.
But not everyone is convinced that big investments in technology will achieve much in tackling climate change.
Lanyasunya T.P., a member of the management board at Kenya’s National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI), argues that young people and women need to be involved at the community level in such efforts if they are to bear real fruit.
“The future of this country in all spheres of development is in the hands of the coming generation,” he said. But NACOSTI – which is not involved in the MODIS project – lacks funding to help young people begin exploring their own ideas, he added.
The RCMRD’s Mugo, however, believes governments affiliated with his institution are making progress in engaging their employees, as well as donors and communities affected by climate change.
“It might look like governments are making a small contribution to fight climate change but it is significant,” Mugo said.
In the case of the MODIS project, the Kenyan government employs the staff working on the project, and is responsible for gathering, processing and distributing the data to the centre’s other member states.
Barclays Bank in the U.K. will begin using a finger vein scanner to identify its customers. The move comes after a wave of hacks on financial institutions that have demonstrated how feeble password and PIN protections have become.
The bank will send the small portable device to its customers who want to do their banking online. It will function as a form of two-factor identification. Users will punch in their pass word or account details, and then be required to confirm their identities by sticking their fingers into the scanner, a separate device from their computer.
Barclays customers have already been using a separate portable device, the PINsentry, the access their accounts online. Users log in, then insert their debit cards into the PINsentry to retrieve another code number, and can only proceed with transactions once the web site is satisfied that the user, the card and the PINsentry code all came from the owner of the account.
Here is a PINsentry:
The vein scanner will be even more secure, Barclays says: “The compact device can read and verify the users’ unique vein patterns in the finger. Unlike finger prints, vein patterns are extremely difficult to spoof or replicate. Barclays will not hold the user’s vein pattern and there will be no public record of it.”
Here is a closeup:
Barclays finger vein scanner
The device will require users to make sure they don’t lose any of their fingers, the Guardian noted:
Customers will first have to register a finger – Barclays is recommending the index finger, plus a back-up digit should you be careless enough to lose or damage the first choice. The unique vein pattern in the finger will then be held on a sim card that is added to the reader. Barclays itself will not store the data.
The device then scans the unique pattern of veins inside your finger to confirm that it’s actually you:
Japan, Turkey, Russia and Poland already have banks using vein scanners to confirm IDs, the Financial Times says.
What is fish farming?
Why do we raise fish?
What do you need to raise fish?
a supply of water,
baby fish to begin,
food for your fish.
How do we begin?
how to fill it with water,
how to fertilize it.
Local name: Three-spotted bream
how to put the baby fish into your pond,
what to feed your fish, how to feed them.
how to drain it,
how to harvest the fish,
how to use your own baby fish to start again.
Where to put your fish pond
Near your home it is also easier to take care of the fish.
The water should not have a bad smell, taste or colour. It should not be too muddy.
Early in the morning fill it with water. Fill it to the top.
How large should your pond be?
20m × 25m = 500m2
but your pond can have a different shape to fit the size and shape of your land.
How to build a pond
A better outlet
If the ground on the outside of the pond is higher than the pond bottom at the deepest part, you will have to dig a ditch so that the end of the siphon on the outside of the pond will be lower than the end of the siphon in the pond.
The ditch will also take the water away when you empty your pond.
PREPARING YOUR POND
BEFORE FILLING THE POND
turn it to the upright position.
Filling your pond with water
Fertilizing the water in your pond
How to make compost
Putting fertilizer into the crib
When is your pond ready?
TAKING CARE OF YOUR POND
PUTTING THE FISH INTO YOUR POND
or from another fish farmer.
20 × 25 = 500
500 m2 area has 50 × 10m2
50 × 25 = 1250
Growing your own baby fish
It is easier and cheaper than getting them from a fish culture station or another fish farmer.
Feeding the fish in your nursery pond
Moving your baby fish
Carrying your baby fish
Putting baby fish into your big pond
Feeding your big fish
TAKING CARE OF YOUR FISH
Retail “Tribal Print” Crop-Tops
I remember looking out the window of my mother’s car as she drove me home after school. I remember seeing a bumper sticker that read, “I was Indian before it was cool,” on a curiously pristine 1982 black Datsun with the tacky neon decal scribbles on the side. I instantly imagined the driver riding a zoomorphic horse version of his awesome truck. No saddle. Stereotypically ribbon-like Native hair blowing in the wind. The fantasy Native is easy for anyone to imagine.
And despite being a rather naive 14 years old, I had an inkling of the kind of person the sticker referred to. Having grown up closer to a reservation than a college town (i.e., hundreds of miles away from anyone who’d wear a headdress for fun), I knew it had to be an earthy variety of white person almost foreign to me. I’d occasionally see…
View original post 789 more words
The European Court of Justice recently ruled that Google has to remove links to specific articles on (proper) request where the damage to the individual outweighs the public right to know.
It has generated a lot of reaction. Lots of people have done things, or have been accused of doing things, and would prefer that the records of that don’t appear when people do a search for them. If a pedophile or a corrupt politician wants to erase something from their past, then many of us would object. If it is someone who once had a bad debt and long since paid it off, that seems more reasonable. So is there any general principle that would be useful? I think so.
When someone is convicted of a crime, sometimes they are set to prison. When their sentence terminates, they are considered to have suffered enough punishment and are free to live a…
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By Tom Cheshire, Technology Correspondent
Millions of eBay users were asked to change their passwords on Wednesday after the site’s security was compromised. Here are some top tips and what to do to tighten up your online security.
Change your password
Even if you haven’t used your eBay account, change your password – especially if you’ve used that password on other sites.
It’s a pain, but it’s worth changing your major passwords – especially anything tied to financial and sensitive personal information – every few months.
Change your password in the browser
When changing your password, don’t do this by following an email prompt.
Instead, go the website directly by pasting its URL into the address bar in your web browser.
More generally, never click on links on emails unless you’re completely sure it’s from a trustworthy source. Even a friend sharing an amusing cat video may have been hacked.
Choose the best possible password
What makes the best password is subject to hard fought debate online.
The most secure passwords are also the hardest to remember, and any password is a trade-off between security and convenience. A long, unintelligible string of alphanumeric and special characters is strongest, but not practical for everyday use.
Instead, use a memorable combination of words – not culled from a famous phrase or book.
If your phrase is anywhere on the web, chances are it’s known to hackers – so ‘itwasthebestoftimesitwastheworstoftimes’ isn’t much better than ‘eBayPassword679’.
Don’t use easily guessable information. Choose a nonsense phrase that you’ll remember, and swap in some numbers and special characters.
Something like ‘InApril1EnjoyThrowingDucks!n1ntoTh3R1ver’ is good, then come up with a variation on that for each site.
Again, don’t use the same passwords across different sites.
Use a password manager
If you do prefer to use a stronger password, but struggle to keep track of them, consider using a password manager.
These collect all your passwords into one place, so that you access all the different passwords with one master password.
Because there’s only one point of failure, that password needs to be very secure – and also very well protected.
KeePass, LastPass, Password Box and Dashlane are all good options.
Consider two-step verification
For your most important online accounts – banking, email and social networking – two-step authentication is a very good way of making yourself more secure.
This means that when you log into an unusual computer, you’ll have to authenticate yourself using your mobile phone or another means of verification. Most major web sites offer this now, and it’s less of a hassle than you think.
Pay attention to iTunes
If you suspect you’ve been hacked, pay close attention to your outgoing finances.
Hackers will often use very small amounts to test the water with stolen financial information.
Pay close attention to iTunes especially – hackers will make tiny purchases worth pennies here, to see if a credit card works. So make sure you check your iTunes statements.
Scan for malware
If hackers have your email address and other personal information, there’s a good chance they can access your personal devices.
Install malware protection from a reputable source and scan your computer.
Everyone hates passwords and, thankfully, they may not be around for much longer.
Many companies are working on software that uses behavioural monitoring – the way you type, click around a website and generally interact – to uniquely identify you.
Others are looking at biometrics – like Apple and Samsung’s fingerprint readers on their smartphones.
Future technology might use facial recognition, or heartbeat pattern detection.
Applies to: Exchange Server 2010 SP3, Exchange Server 2010 SP2
Topic Last Modified: 2010-01-25
In Microsoft Exchange Server 2010, transport rules allow you to apply messaging policies to messages in the transport pipeline. Actions such as redirecting a message or adding recipients, rights-protecting messages, and rejecting or silently deleting a message can be taken on messages that match the conditions and none of the exceptions defined in the rule.
Given the scope and potential impact of transport rules on messages, it’s important to understand how transport rules work. To learn more about transport rules, see Understanding Transport Rules. For a comprehensive list of transport rule predicates and actions available on the Hub Transport server and Edge Transport server, see Transport Rule Predicates and Transport Rule Actions.
Looking for management tasks related to managing transport rules? Check out Managing Transport Rules.
Transport Rule Scope
Although the procedures used to create and modify transport rules on each server role are the same, the scope of transport rules on each server role is very different.
Hub Transport server role
Edge Transport server role
|Agent||Transport Rules agent||Edge Rules agent|
|Rule storage||Active Directory domain controllers||Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) (local)|
|Rule replication||Active Directory replication||No automated replication between Edge Transport servers|
|Rule scope||Entire Exchange organization||Local to each Edge Transport server|
|Message types||All messages except system messages||All messages|
|Lookup distribution group membership||Yes||No|
|Lookup Active Directory attributes||Yes||No|
|Inspect or modify Information Rights Management (IRM)-protected message content||Yes (requires transport decryption)||No|
Rule Storage and Replication
The transport rules you create on a Hub Transport server are stored in Active Directory and are available after Active Directory replication on all Hub Transport servers in your Exchange 2010 organization. This allows you to apply a consistent set of rules across the entire Exchange organization.
Transport rules created on an Edge Transport server are stored in the local instance of AD LDS. No automated replication of configuration information or transport rules occurs between two Edge Transport servers. You can use distinct sets of transport rules on different Edge Transport servers. For example, if an organization uses a different set of Edge Transport servers for inbound and outbound messages to and from the Internet, different rules can be used on these servers. Rules created on the Edge Transport server apply only to messages that pass through that server. However, if applying the same set of transport rules on all Edge Transport servers is a requirement, you can also clone the Edge Transport server configuration, or export transport rules from one Edge Transport server and import it to other Edge Transport servers. For more details, see Understanding Edge Transport Server Cloned Configuration and Export and Import Transport Rules.
On Edge Transport servers, rules apply to all messages. On Hub Transport servers, rules are applied to messages that meet the following criteria:
Transport Rule Replication
Transport rules configured on Hub Transport servers are applied to all messages handled by the Hub Transport servers in the Exchange 2010 organization. When a transport rule is created or an existing transport rule is modified or deleted on one Hub Transport server, the change is replicated to all Active Directory domain controllers in the organization. All the Hub Transport servers in the organization then read the new configuration from the Active Directory servers and apply the new or modified transport rules. By replicating transport rules across the organization, Exchange 2010 enables you to apply a consistent set of rules across the organization.
|Replication of transport rules across an organization depends on Active Directory replication. Replication time between Active Directory domain controllers varies depending on the number of sites in the organization, slow links, and other factors outside the control of Exchange. When you configure transport rules in your organization, make sure that you consider replication delays. For more information about Active Directory replication, see Active Directory Replication Technologies.|
|Each Hub Transport server maintains a recipient cache that’s used to look up recipient and distribution list information. The recipient cache reduces the number of requests that each Hub Transport server must make to an Active Directory domain controller. The recipient cache updates every four hours. You can’t modify the recipient cache update interval. Therefore, changes to transport rule recipients, such as the addition or removal of distribution list members, may not be applied to transport rules until the recipient cache is updated. To force an immediate update of the recipient cache, you must stop and start the Microsoft Exchange Transport service. You must do this for each Hub Transport server where you want to forcibly update the recipient cache.|
|Each time the Hub Transport server retrieves a new transport rule configuration, an event is logged in the Security log in Event Viewer.|
Transport rules configured on Edge Transport servers are applied only to the local server on which the transport rule was created. New transport rules and changes to existing transport rules affect only messages that pass through that specific Edge Transport server. If you have more than one Edge Transport server and you want to apply a consistent set of rules across all Edge Transport servers, you must either manually configure each server or export the transport rules from one server and import them into all other Edge Transport servers.
Order in Which Transport Rules Are Applied
Transport rules are applied in the following order:
nis the total number of transport rules. Only enabled rules are applied, regardless of priority. You can change the priority of rules using the Exchange Management Console or the Exchange Management Shell.
SubjectContainscondition on a transport rule is configured to match the words Contoso and stock, the condition is satisfied because the subject contains at least one of the values of the condition.
|Some actions, such as the Delete the message without notifying anyone action, prevent subsequent rules from being applied to a message.|
Transport Rules and Group Membership
When you define a transport rule using a predicate that expands membership of a distribution group, the resulting list of recipients is cached by the Hub Transport server that applies the rule. This is known as the Expanded Groups Cache and is also used by the Journaling agent for evaluating group membership for journal rules. By default, the Expanded Groups Cache stores group membership for four hours. Recipients returned by the recipient filter of a dynamic distribution group are also stored. The Expanded Groups Cache makes repeated round-trips to Active Directory and the resulting network traffic from resolving group memberships unnecessary.
In Exchange 2010, this interval and other parameters related to the Expanded Groups Cache are configurable. You can lower the cache expiration interval, or disable caching altogether, to ensure group memberships are refreshed more frequently. You must plan for the corresponding increase in load on your Active Directory domain controllers for distribution group expansion queries. You can also clear the cache on a Hub Transport server by restarting the Microsoft Exchange Transport service on that server. You must do this on each Hub Transport server where you want to clear the cache. When creating, testing, and troubleshooting transport rules that use predicates based on distribution group membership, you must also consider the impact of Expanded Groups Cache.
Create a Public Folder Mailbox
Applies to: Exchange Server 2013, Exchange Online
Topic Last Modified: 2013-02-14
Before you can create a public folder, you must first create a public folder mailbox. Public folder mailboxes contain the hierarchy information plus the content for public folders. The first public folder mailbox you create will be the primary hierarchy mailbox, which contains the only writable copy of the hierarchy. Any additional public folder mailboxes you create will be secondary mailboxes, which contain a read-only copy of the hierarchy.
For additional management tasks related to public folders in Exchange 2013, see Public Folder Procedures.
For additional management tasks related to public folders in Exchange Online, see Public Folder Procedures in Exchange Online.
What do you need to know before you begin?
What do you want to do?
Use the EAC to create a public folder mailbox
Use the Shell to create a public folder mailbox
This example creates the primary public folder mailbox.
New-Mailbox -PublicFolder -Name MasterHierarchy
This example creates a secondary public folder mailbox. The only difference between creating the primary hierarchy mailbox and a secondary hierarchy mailbox is that the primary mailbox is the first one created in the organization. You can create additional public folder mailboxes for load balancing purposes.
New-Mailbox -PublicFolder -Name Istanbul
For detailed syntax and parameter information, see New-Mailbox.
How do you know this worked?
To verify that you have successfully created the primary public folder mailbox, run the following Shell command:
Get-OrganizationConfig | Format-List RootPublicFolderMailbox